What is human rights?

What is human rights?

What is human rights?

After the Second World War, on December 10, 1948, the United Nations Organization published the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , probably one of the most important documents in history because it became a reference worldwide. The 30 Human Rights of the UN have served as a guide for countries to advance in the proclamation and protection of civil, political, economic and social rights, inspiring from the European Social Charter to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.


Human Rights are inherent to all people, without distinction of nationality, origin, place of residence, gender, ethnicity, skin color, religion, language or any other condition. Its main objective is to guarantee the basic conditions that favor the integral development of each person while protecting human dignity.

The Human Rights Universal are usually collected in the national legal order and international law, so that States are responsible for promulgating laws and measures to ensure compliance at individual and group level.


  • Inalienability. Human Rights are universal and cannot be suppressed, except in very specific conditions, but always respecting the procedural guarantees that provide a fair trial.
  • Equitable and non-discriminatory. Human Rights do not make distinctions between people, establishing that we are all free and equal, prohibiting all types of discrimination.
  • Indivisible and interdependent. All types of Human Rights are interrelated, so that the advance or retreat in civil, political, social and / or cultural rights influences the development of others.

It is worth clarifying that Human Rights include both rights and obligations . International law dictates that States are responsible for respecting, protecting and enforcing Human Rights. Therefore, the State must not only protect individuals and groups from abuses and violations of their rights, but must also promote laws that ensure the progress of Human Rights.


The UN collected 30 Human Rights in its Universal Declaration that each person, group, organization or State must respect:

  1. All people are born free and equal.
  2. All people have these rights, without distinction.
  3. Right to life, liberty and security.
  4. No one will be held in slavery or servitude.
  5. No one shall be subjected to punishment, torture or cruel or inhuman treatment.
  6. Right to recognition of legal personality.
  7. Right to protection against discrimination.
  8. Right to an effective remedy before the courts.
  9. No one can be arbitrarily detained, banished or imprisoned.
  10. Right to an independent and impartial tribunal.
  11. Right to the presumption of innocence and to a just punishment.
  12. Right to privacy, honor and reputation.
  13. Right to free movement and to choose residence.
  14. Right to asylum in any country.
  15. Right to a nationality and to change it.
  16. Right to a free marriage and the protection of the family by society and the State.
  17. Right to individual and collective property.
  18. Right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
  19. Right to freedom of opinion and expression.
  20. Right to freedom of assembly and association.
  21. Right to participate directly or indirectly in the government of the country.
  22. The right to social security.
  23. Right to work, protection against unemployment and fair and satisfactory remuneration.
  24. Right to rest and enjoy free time.
  25. Right to well-being: food, housing, medical assistance, clothing and other basic social services.
  26. Right to education and free development of the personality.
  27. Right to participate in the cultural life of the community.
  28. Right to a social order that guarantees the rights of the Declaration.
  29. Everyone has duties to their community and must respect the rights and freedoms of others.
  30. No group, person or State can undertake activities that suppress the rights and freedoms proclaimed in the Declaration.

If you are interested in this area, with our online Master in Human Rights you will be able to access a complete, international and multicultural training that will allow you to work in the protection and defense of Human Rights .

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